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Memento: Forgotten Treasures of the Past - THE BIEDERMEIERS

Memento: Forgotten Treasures of the Past - THE BIEDERMEIERS                       -French flageolet and Guitar-Romantic Period
ID: RCD30308 (EAN: 4600383303086)  | 1 CD | DDD - 24 b
Released in: 19th August 2019
Russian Compact Disc
Romantic Period
French flageolet and Guitar
BATHIOLI, Francesco | CHAXELLE, J. | COLLINET, Edmé | DIABELLI, Anton | MOLINO, Francesco | SCHUBERT, Franz (Peter)
KÜFFER, Rubens | RICCIO, Max
The Biedermeiers
Other info:

Rubens Küffer, czakan (1-8,11,17-28); French flageolet (9-10,13-16,29-33)
Max Riccio, romantic guitar (1-11,13-33), terz guitar (12)

“An exceptional opportunity to experience unknown and forgotten melodies of the Romantic era; Rubens Küffer and Max Riccio are one of the most expert duos on the Biedermeier repertoire.”
Manuel Staropoli
BATHIOLI, Francesco (17??- 1830) 
Grandes Variations Concertantes sur le Théme de Mr. Himmel "An Alexis send ich dich" 
1. Introduzione - Andante sostenuto1:38
2. Tema - Andante grazioso1:00
3. Var.11:24
4. Var.21:15
5. Var.3 - Piu lento1:58
6. Var.4 - Piu mosso1:21
7. Adagio con espressione4:24
8. Allegretto mosso2:16
MOLINO, Francesco (1768-1847) 
Nocturne pour Flute ou Violon et Guitare, Opus 38. 
9. Andante cantabile3:14
10. Rondo Allegro2:42
SCHUBERT, Franz (Peter) (1797-1828) 
11. Die Forelle - D5501:47
12. Ständchen - D9574:08
CHAXELLE, J. (? - 1782) 
Quatre Contredanses 
13. L'Africaine0:47
14. La Marocaine0:59
15. Sauteuse par Joly 0:29
16. Waltzer par Joly0:51
DIABELLI, Anton (1781-1858) 
Thémes favoris del'Opera Zelmira de Rossini, Cahier 1. 
17. Thema No.1 - Allegro moderato - Cavatina (Sorte secondami) chantee par Mr. Nozzari1:08
18. Var.11:10
19. Var.21:19
20. Thema No.2 aus detto - Andantino1:12
21. Var.11:22
22. Var.2 - Allegro0:39
23. Thema No.3 - Allegro moderato - Terzetto (Soave con forto) 0:45
24. Var.10:54
25. Var.21:09
26. Thema No.4 aus detto - Allegro0:34
27. Var.10:45
28. Var.2 - Alla Polacca1:21
COLLINET, Edmé (1765 -1841) 
No.1 des Sérenades 
29. Introduction - Andantino 1:17
30. 1ere Variation0:50
31. 2me Variation0:50
32. 3me Variation0:49
33. 4me Variation0:53
Total time: 


The work presented in this recording is the result of an astute and incessant research on instruments that, perhaps for too long, remained unjustly in the shadows. Most probably, if we speak about czakan and French flageolet to an audience composed of the general public of classical and ancient music - or even professional musicians - the great majority will have never heard of either. In defense of this disinformation, there is the fact that both instruments have only been rediscovered and valued in recent times, thanks especially to musicians and enthusiasts of recorder, an instrument with which there is a substantial connection due to the way the sound is produced: “by whistle”.

The flageolet in its various forms had enjoyed a great diffusion in Europe and in the New World up to the beginning of the last century, and its presence is testified to since the 16th Century, remaining a very popular instrument for almost four centuries. It is possible to distinguish essentially three types of flageolets: the French flageolet, the English flageolet and the double/triple flageolet.

The oldest model is certainly the French flageolet. The term "French" came into common use in the early 19th Century to distinguish it from the English flageolet (in its time of great popularity), but as early as 1677 Bartolomeo Bismantova called it French flautino, a probable reference to the development and importance of the art of turning wind instruments in France in the 17th Century.

This model of flageolet stands out in its primordial form as being composed of only two parts, a "beak" head, resembling a small recorder, and a body with six holes: four in the front part of the instrument and two in the back (for both thumbs). The English flageolet, on the other hand, as its name indicates, enjoyed popularity above all in England and differs from the French model by the presence of six or seven holes in line, with or without the thumbhole. Its birth can be traced back to the late 18th Century, at the time when the recorder had fallen into disuse in favor of the flute. In the 19th Century, the mechanization process took place with this instrument as with all other wind instruments. Pierre Rigaud states in his Les secrets de la musique (1846) that the new models with windcap (instead of the beak) sound sweeter and that the addition of the keys brought many advantages:

"[...] The (French) flageolets with keys are the most commonly used because some sharps and flats are easier to play, better tuned and stronger [...]. The (French) flageolets with windcap are preferable to those without it, because their sound is sweeter [...]. The (French) flageolet in A is the most commonly used [...]."

As the mid-19th Century approached, the best French flageolets began to be built with a Boehm key system. In this period they reached their apogee with respect to mechanics, a fact which increased their popularity in dance halls. They assumed the piccolo part in ball orchestras and became irreplaceable in the quadriglia formation, consisting of French flageolet, flute, violin, fortepiano and cornet ad libitum. Their popularity remained unchanged until the 1920s.

Parallel to the flageolet’s development in the 19th Century, in a fairly limited area of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, we find another close relative of the recorder family, the czakan. The instrument, whose name has Hungarian origins, was very fortunate to be highly regarded among the artisans and main composers of the time. Great virtuosos included Ernest Krähmer (1795-1837), Anton Heberle (?-?) and Anton Stadler (1753-1812), the latter being the clarinet virtuoso for whom Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart wrote his famous clarinet concert. Among the composers we also point out the flutist and czakanist Joseph Gebauer (?-?) and multifaceted instrumentalist and composer Anton Diabelli (1781-1858). Transcripts for czakan have been taken from music by others such as G. Donizetti, W. A. Mozart, F. X. Mozart, G. Rossini and J. Strauss.

The czakan is a very intimate and delicate instrument in A flat. Its repertoire consists primarily of solo pieces and chamber music. Marianne Betz, in her text Der Czakan und seine Musik, published by Hans Schneider - Tutzing, catalogs over 400 compositions, most of which are still practically forgotten.

A very popular instrument today, the romantic guitar is the result of successive modifications made on previous models. The double string courses used until the end of the 18th Century were abandoned, and coated basses came into use, which also allowed for the guitar’s lower range with the introduction of a sixth string. Among the most beloved instruments of the 19th Century, it has been the subject of countless publications as a solo instrument, as an accompanying instrument, and in various chamber formations. Extremely frequent was its use in Central Europe with the czakan where, in order to mesh the keys of the two instruments, one of these three techniques was always employed: the guitar was tuned a half tone lower (key of E flat), a capo was used on the third fret (key of G) or the pieces were played with a terz guitar, a small guitar in G. Its partnership with the flageolet was, however, more unusual, although there are a few examples that survived.


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